2017年03月29日

講演要旨

 

Opportunities and challenges in low dose risk research
Wolfgang Weiss, Germany (このメールアドレスはスパムボットから保護されています。閲覧するにはJavaScriptを有効にする必要があります。)

Lecture, Yukawa Institute, Kyoto University, 28th May 2015

Despite major research efforts during the past decades worldwide there are uncertainties remaining associated with health risks and effects due to exposures to low dose ionizing radiation. These uncertainties impair the available decision-making capabilities, whether in responding to radiological events involving large populations as well as vulnerable population groups (eg. 2011 Fukushima accident) or in areas such as the rapid increase in radiation-based medical procedures, the clean-up of radioactive contamination from legacy sites and the civilian nuclear energy production.

There is a societal need to improve the scientific understanding of radiation-induced health risks at low doses and low dose rates. Any over-, or under-, estimation of these risks could lead either to unnecessary restriction or to a lower level of health protection than intended. Compilations of specific research needs are available at international level (UNSCEAR, ICRP).

Ongoing research activities cover a wide range of topics and methodologies, including the following areas:

(1) Direct effects on radiation-induced diseases

  • Identification, establishment and continued follow-up of suitable cohorts of radiation exposed populations for epidemiological studies related to cancer and non-cancer effects. A re-assessment of dose (uncertainties) is highly recommended.
  • Identification of the synergistic effect of combined exposure with environmental pollutants, to better match the real situation of an exposed population.
  • Identification, development and validation of biomarkers for radiation exposure, effects and disease.
  • Continuing development of suitable whole animal as well as human cellular models (including somatic stem cells) for radiation carcinogenesis and non-cancer diseases which bear clear relationships to human diseases.
  • Examination of the impact of low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on

pathways/processes contributing to human pathologies. This involves the understanding of the relationship between early and late effects, targeted and non-targeted effects as well as the role of delayed genetic instability.

  • Identification of the nature and number of target cells at risk for specific radiation related diseases in humans.
  • Clarification of the contribution of radiation effects in target cells as well as radiation effects and responses in the tissue environment and interaction between both target cell and tissue environment at different dose levels to the development of radiation-associated diseases.
  • Examination of the impact of low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on

pathways/processes contributing to non-cancer disease such as cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease, cataract and impaired cognitive function.

  • Better understanding of the risks of internal emitters following internal contamination with radionuclides, paying attention to the type of decay, particle size (if applicable), the intake pathways, chemical speciation of the radioelement (and its daughters) in the tissue or body fluids and the biodistribution. Comparison of the theoretical impact using biological effectiveness data with the experimental data.

(2) Individual and general health and radiation protection issues

  • Understanding the impact of inter-individual variation of radiation risks in relation to cancer and non-cancer diseases, and how this might impact on dose response relationships in populations.
  • Examination of the impact of low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on the immune function.
  • Understanding the effect of age-at-exposure on radiation risk, from unborn child to adult ageing stage.
  • Examination of the effect of cell death in carcinogenesis during chronic irradiation in tissue level.
  • Understanding of the dependence of radiation risk on gender.
  • Analysis of the role of trans-generational effects and heritable radiation effects.

According to the MELODI statement of 2013 priority of future work should be given to the:

  • Quantification of the role of ionising radiation in the development of non-cancer disease such as cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease, eye lens opacities and impaired cognitive function after low dose (< 500 mSv) irradiation.
  • Development of suitable biomarkers for exposure, cellular and tissue effects as well as for in situ stages of diseases. The biomarkers should be usable for molecular epidemiological studies.
  • Clarification of the role of effects in target cells and in the tissue environment (including stem cells and cells of the immune system) in a dose range with clear focus on low doses and low dose rates. This may include in vivo detection systems as well as suitable in vitro systems.
  • Identification and analysis of suitable epidemiological cohorts if available with archived biomaterial to improve low dose radiation risk assessment by reducing uncertainties especially for the investigation of age- and gender-dependency of radiation risk. Uncertainties due to the exposure assessment should be clearly announced. Suitable data and biomaterial banks should be established with a clear focus on the possibilities to share data, material and knowledge within the scientific and wider radioprotection community.
  • Development of guidelines for short, medium and long-term exposure and health risk monitoring in case of a major nuclear accident in Europe. This is to ensure the public that all possible scientific efforts are undertaken to record, document and analyse exposed populations in the scientifically best available way to generate in a comprehensive manner information about health consequences from possible accidents in the future.

The European High Level and Expert Group (HLEG) on Low Dose Risk Research addressed the key aspects of current knowledge in the low dose risk field and identified ways to improve the overall situation by answering the key policy questions by targeted research. The complex and multidisciplinary nature of these issues is such that their resolution can be achieved only through the integration of research at a European, or even international, level. The HLEG report (2009) proposes the establishment of a trans-national organisation capable of ensuring an appropriate governance of research in this field. To reach the ambitious goals, stability of R&D policies at European and national levels will be required for at least a decade.

The HLEG report is

  • formulating the policy goals to be addressed by low dose risk research;
  • developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and road map for low dose risk research in Europe;
  • specifying the essential elements of and next steps to establish a sustainable operational framework for low dose risk research in Europe.

According to the HLEG report, the more important issues are:

  • The shape of dose-response for cancer;
  • Tissue sensitivities for cancer induction;
  • Individual variability in cancer risk;
  • The effects of radiation quality (type);
  • Risks from internal radiation exposure;
  • Risks of, and dose response relationships for, non-cancer diseases;
  • Hereditary effects.

The scientific and administrative challenges in implementing such a research program are to

  • Enhance multi-disciplinarity;
  • Include societal aspects in the scope.
  • Develop a holistic research strategy;
  • Secure sustainable funding.

Major EU research programs (MELODI, DoReMi, OPERRA, CONCERT) have been established to implement the ideas developed by HLEG; they provide good opportunities to integrate the available resources for research in Europe within a strategic and sustainable effort. The existing programs address a variety of scientific questions relevant to medical radiation protection, emergency preparedness and response, and radioecology.

The Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative MELODI is a European Platform dedicated to low dose radiation risk research. MELODI was founded in 2010 as a registered association with 15 members (2014: 30 members).

The purpose of MELODI is to:

  • Propose research and training (R&T) priorities for Europe in its field of competence;
  • Contribute to the EUROPE 2020 Strategy of the European Commission;
  • Seek the views of stakeholders on the priorities for research, keep them informed on progress made;
  • Contribute to the dissemination of knowledge.

Key features of the MELODI working concepts are the

  • Shared understanding of the overall goals and of the key questions to be addressed by research activities;
  • Agreement on a long-term strategic research agenda and on a road map for the implementation of the research agenda;
  • Identification of key fields of expertise (biology, biophysics, dosimetry, modelling, epidemiology), as well as of research infrastructures (research facilities, cohorts, etc.) needed for the implementation of the programs.

By integrating education and training activities the programs contribute towards sustainability in the field of low dose risk research.

One of the key objectives of MELODI is the development of a strategic research agenda (MELODI SRA)and a wide cooperation for its implementation. The MELODI SRA frames the research strategy with three key research questions:

  • Dose/dose rate dependence of cancer risk?
  • Threshold exposures for protection from health risks other than cancer?
  • Reliable methods for identifying individual radiation sensitivity, and addressing related ethical issues?

The research approaches recommended to answer the questions are

  • Radiobiology research to improve understanding of mechanisms contributing to radiation risk;
  • Epidemiology Research to integrate biological indicators into radiation risk evaluation;
  • Radiation protection research to better understand the specifics of internal or inhomogeneous exposures, and of different radiation qualities.

Four European Research Platforms focused on core radiation protection activities are contributing to the work:

  • Low dose effects and risks: MELODI;
  • Radioecology: ALLIANCE;
  • Nuclear emergency preparedness: NERIS;
  • Dosimetry: EURADOS.

Addition consultations with networks focussing on radiation protection in medicine are underway with the aim of integrating the existing and future research activities in this important field in the planning and implementation process.

To achieve consensus on priorities within a strategic research agenda is a complex undertaking, which requires among other things the sharing of available expertise and resources at all levels, openness, transparency and trust between the partners as well as the integration of a broad spectrum of research organizations and programs.

Four out of 15 highest ranked synergetic research priorities from the European Research Platforms SRA identified in 2014 are:

  • Biological indicators of radiation exposure, effects, health risks and disease susceptibility to inform emergency management and epidemiological studies;
  • Development of monitoring strategies, processes and tools;
  • Spatial and temporal environmental modelling and human dose assessment after a nuclear accident;
  • Development of health surveillance procedures.

Projects within these priority areas will be subject to funding by the EURATOM research program.

The purpose of the DoReMi Network of excellence (funding period: 2010 to 2015, 32 partner (2013)) is to promote the sustainable integration of low dose risk research in Europe in order to aid the effective resolution of the key policy questions identified by the High Level Expert Group (HLEG). It provides an operational tool for the development of the MELODI platform (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Risk Re-search Initiative - www.melodi-online.eu). The Joint Programme of Activities (JPA) include three main activities:

  • Development of a Joint Programme of Research (JPR) on a rolling basis covering the issues outlined above and providing an overview of the needs for research infra-structures of pan-European interest and facilitating multilateral initiatives leading to better use and development of research infrastructures.
  • Establishing a Joint Programme of Integration (JPI) to develop a coordinated European roadmap for the long term needs of the key players in Europe.
  • Establishing a Joint Programme for the Spreading of Excellence (JPSE), covering knowledge management, training and mobility and its implementation.

A substantial proportion of the JPA is dedicated to the Joint Programme of Research. The programme describes a multidisciplinary approach including interfaces with the broader biological toxicological and epidemiological communities.

Within the „Open Project for the European Radiation Research Area” OPERRA, the MELODI Association takes the lead in establishing the necessary administrative and legal structures able to manage the long-term European research programmes in radiation protection, also taking advantage of the valuable experience gathered through the DoReMi network of excellence.

The main objectives of the, OPERRA, are to

  • Build up an umbrella coordination structure that has the capacity in a legal and logistical sense to administer future calls for research in radiation protection on behalf of the European Commission as the main funding agency;
  • Support the MELODI Association to take the lead to manage the long-term European research programmes together with the support of sister research structures as equal partners (e.g. Alliance, NERIS, EURADOS, EURAMET, EUTERP, etc.).

The European Strategy for Radiation Protection Research European Strategy for Radiation Protection Research, CONCERT EJP builds on the ideas described above; it has recently been established as an innovative two way street to integration. It defines an umbrella structure for radiation protection research in Europe by including activities for open research calls, integrative activities, joint programming and co-funding actions. CONCERT is open to new national Programme Managers at any time.

The EJP consortium is aiming at spreading excellence, multi-disciplinarity, and state of the art knowledge through the application of two approaches:

  • Co-operation, competitive open calls processes, communication between the partners as well as
  • Listening to needs, expression of priorities and innovative ideas of society through appropriate mechanisms.

The CONCERT funding scheme has a total budget of around 27 M€ over the next 5 years. 70% of the budget is covered by EURATOM, 30% by the EJP Partners; 60% of the total budget for 2016 and 2017 are allocated to two CONCERT open research calls, 30% for CONCERT integrative activities (joint programming, stakeholder engagement, access to research infrastructure, education and training (E&T), etc., and 10% for administration and management.

Literature

Concert EJP: www.melodi2014.org/files/presentations/09102014/3_Jung.pdf
DoReMi: www.doremi-noe.net
HLEG report: www.hleg.de
MELODI SRA: www.melodi-online.eu/sra.html
OPERRA: www.melodi-online.eu/doc/DPP_OPERRA.pdf

概要資料(英語)PDF版

 

 

Lecture, Yukawa Institute, Kyoto University, 28th May 2015

Opportunities and challenges in low dose risk research
低線量リスク研究における機会と挑戦

Wolfgang Weiss, Germany (このメールアドレスはスパムボットから保護されています。閲覧するにはJavaScriptを有効にする必要があります。)

Despite major research efforts during the past decades worldwide there are uncertainties remaining associated with health risks and effects due to exposures to low dose ionizing radiation. These uncertainties impair the available decision-making capabilities, whether in responding to radiological events involving large populations as well as vulnerable population groups (eg. 2011 Fukushima accident) or in areas such as the rapid increase in radiation-based medical procedures, the clean-up of radioactive contamination from legacy sites and the civilian nuclear energy production.
過去数十年もの間世界各地における大規模な研究努力にも関わらず、低線量電離放射線への被ばくによる健康リスクと影響に関して多くの不確実性が残っています。これらの不確実性は、様々な場合における政策決定能力、例えば2011年の福島第一原発事故にような多数の人びとや社会的弱者集団を巻き込む被ばく事例や放射線を利用した医療処置の急速な拡大、かつて放射性物質を扱っていた跡地や原子力の民生利用による放射能汚染の除去といった場合における政策決定能力を阻害しています。

There is a societal need to improve the scientific understanding of radiation-induced health risks at low doses and low dose rates. Any over-, or under-, estimation of these risks could lead either to unnecessary restriction or to a lower level of health protection than intended. Compilations of specific research needs are available at international level (UNSCEAR, ICRP).
現在、低線量かつ低線量率における放射線による健康リスクの科学的な理解を改善する社会的要請があります。これらのリスクを過剰もしくは過小に評価することは、不必要な制約をもたらすか、もしくは望ましい健康維持レベル以下となる結果を招きかねません。国際的にはUNSCEAR(国連科学委員会)とICRP(国際放射線防護委員会)といった組織によって、次のような重点研究領域の一覧が挙げられています。

Ongoing research activities cover a wide range of topics and methodologies, including the following areas:
次の領域を含む幅広いトピックと方法論を包括するような現在進行中の研究活動:

(1) Direct effects on radiation-induced diseases
1)放射線誘発疾患に関する直接的な影響

  • Identification, establishment and continued follow-up of suitable cohorts of radiation exposed populations for epidemiological studies related to cancer and non-cancer effects. A re-assessment of dose (uncertainties) is highly recommended.
  • がんと非がん影響に関連する疫学調査のために放射線被ばくを経験した人口集団中の適切なコホートの特定、設定、そして継続的な追跡
  • Identification of the synergistic effect of combined exposure with environmental pollutants, to better match the real situation of an exposed population.
  • 被ばくした人口集団の実情をより良く反映するため、複数の環境汚染物質に対する曝露の相乗効果の特定
  • Identification, development and validation of biomarkers for radiation exposure, effects and disease.
  • 放射線被ばく、その効果、そして疾患に関する生物的指標の特定、開発、そして実証
  • Continuing development of suitable whole animal as well as human cellular models (including somatic stem cells) for radiation carcinogenesis and non-cancer diseases which bear clear relationships to human diseases.
  • 放射線のがん化作用と疾患の発生に明確な関連がある非がん疾患に関する適切な動物モデルと人体細胞モデルの継続的な開発
  • Examination of the impact of low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on pathways/processes contributing to human pathologies. This involves the understanding of the relationship between early and late effects, targeted and non-targeted effects as well as the role of delayed genetic instability.
  • 低線量・低線量率における放射線影響が人体の病理上重要な役割を果たすような経路や過程に与える影響の調査。これには、早期の影響と晩発の影響の関係性、標的効果と非標的効果との関係性、そして遅延性遺伝的不安定性の役割の理解が含まれる
  • Identification of the nature and number of target cells at risk for specific radiation related diseases in humans.
  • 人体における特定の放射線関連の疾患について問題となる標的細胞の性質と数の特定
  • Clarification of the contribution of radiation effects in target cells as well as radiation effects and responses in the tissue environment and interaction between both target cell and tissue environment at different dose levels to the development of radiation-associated diseases.
  • 標的細胞における放射線影響の寄与 、細胞組織の環境における放射線影響と応答、そして放射線に関連する疾患の進展に関連するような異なる線量レベルにおける標的細胞と細胞組織の環境の間の相互作用の確定
  • Examination of the impact of low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on pathways/processes contributing to non-cancer disease such as cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease, cataract and impaired cognitive function.
  • 心血管系及び脳血管系疾患や白内障、認知機能の低下といった非がん疾患に寄与するような経路及び過程に対する低線量・低線量率放射線影響の検討
  • Better understanding of the risks of internal emitters following internal contamination with radionuclides, paying attention to the type of decay, particle size (if applicable), the intake pathways, chemical speciation of the radioelement (and its daughters) in the tissue or body fluids and the biodistribution. Comparison of the theoretical impact using biological effectiveness data with the experimental data.
  • 放射性核種による人体内部の汚染による内部被ばく物質、特にその崩壊のタイプ、(それが当てはまる場合は)粒子のサイズ、摂取経路、細胞組織や体液中における放射性物質(とその娘核種)の化学種と生体内分布に注目した内部被ばく物質のリスクの理解の改善

(2) Individual and general health and radiation protection issues

  • Understanding the impact of inter-individual variation of radiation risks in relation to cancer and non-cancer diseases, and how this might impact on dose response relationships in populations.
  • がんと非がん疾患に関連する放射線リスクの個人差の影響とそれが人口集団中の線量=応答関係に与える影響の理解
  • Examination of the impact of low dose and low dose rate radiation effects on the immune function.
  • 免疫機能に対する低線量・低線量率放射線効果の影響の検討
  • Understanding the effect of age-at-exposure on radiation risk, from unborn child to adult ageing stage.
  • 胎児から成人の加齢段階に至る放射線リスクの被ばく時年齢効果の理解
  • Examination of the effect of cell death in carcinogenesis during chronic irradiation in tissue level.
  • 細胞組織レベルにおける慢性被ばく時の発がんによる細胞死効果の検討
  • Understanding of the dependence of radiation risk on gender.
  • 放射線リスクに関する性別の影響の理解
  • Analysis of the role of trans-generational effects and heritable radiation effects.
  • 継世代的影響や遺伝的放射線影響の役割の分析

According to the MELODI statement of 2013 priority of future work should be given to the:
2013年のMELODI声明によると、将来の重点研究課題については以下の通りとなっています。

  • Quantification of the role of ionising radiation in the development of non-cancer disease such as cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease, eye lens opacities and impaired cognitive function after low dose (< 500 mSv) irradiation.
  • 非がん疾病の発生、例えば心血管系・脳血管系疾患、眼のレンズの透過率低下、そして500ミリシーベルト以下の被ばく後における認知機能の低下に関する電離放射線の役割の定量化
  • Development of suitable biomarkers for exposure, cellular and tissue effects as well as for in situ stages of diseases. The biomarkers should be usable for molecular epidemiological studies.
  • 被ばく、細胞及び細胞組織効果、そして疾病の様々な生体内での段階に関する適切な生物的指標の開発
  • Clarification of the role of effects in target cells and in the tissue environment (including stem cells and cells of the immune system) in a dose range with clear focus on low doses and low dose rates. This may include in vivo detection systems as well as suitable in vitro systems.
  • 主に低線量・低線量率に関する線量域における標的細胞と細胞組織環境(幹細胞や免疫系細胞を含む)における効果の役割の明確化
  • Identification and analysis of suitable epidemiological cohorts if available with archived biomaterial to improve low dose radiation risk assessment by reducing uncertainties especially for the investigation of age- and gender-dependency of radiation risk. Uncertainties due to the exposure assessment should be clearly announced. Suitable data and biomaterial banks should be established with a clear focus on the possibilities to share data, material and knowledge within the scientific and wider radioprotection community.
  • 特に年齢および性別に依存する放射線リスクの研究に関する不確実性の低減を通じて低線量放射線リスク評価を改善するために必要な適切な疫学コホートと可能ならば蓄積されたバイオマテリアルの特定と分析
  • Development of guidelines for short, medium and long-term exposure and health risk monitoring in case of a major nuclear accident in Europe. This is to ensure the public that all possible scientific efforts are undertaken to record, document and analyse exposed populations in the scientifically best available way to generate in a comprehensive manner information about health consequences from possible accidents in the future.
  • ヨーロッパにおける大規模な核事故の際に参照される短期的・中期的・長期的被ばく及び健康リスクのモニタリングに関するガイドラインの策定。これは、将来起こりうる事故による健康影響に関して総合的に情報を生み出すために科学的に可能な限りベストな方法で被ばくした人口集団を記録し分析するために可能な限りあらゆる科学的努力がなされていることについて一般市民を安心させることを目的としている。

The European High Level and Expert Group (HLEG) on Low Dose Risk Research addressed the key aspects of current knowledge in the low dose risk field and identified ways to improve the overall situation by answering the key policy questions by targeted research. The complex and multidisciplinary nature of these issues is such that their resolution can be achieved only through the integration of research at a European, or even international, level. The HLEG report (2009) proposes the establishment of a trans-national organisation capable of ensuring an appropriate governance of research in this field. To reach the ambitious goals, stability of R&D policies at European and national levels will be required for at least a decade.
「欧州の低線量リスク研究に関する高度専門家グループ(HLEG)」は、低線量リスク領域における現在の知識の重要な側面を扱い、焦点を絞った研究を通じて重要な政策課題に応えることで全体の状況を改善するための方法を特定しました。これらの課題の本質は複雑で学際的であるため、これらの解決は欧州レベル、もしくは国際レベルでの研究の統合を通じてのみ達成可能です。2009年のHLEG報告書は、この分野における研究の適切なガバナンスを確保できるような超国家的(トランスナショナル)な組織の設立を提案しました。このような野心的な目標に達するため、欧州全体及び各国における研究開発政策が少なくとも十年間は安定する必要があります。

The HLEG report is
HLEG報告書は、

  • formulating the policy goals to be addressed by low dose risk research;
  • 低線量リスク研究により取り組まれるべき政策目標を策定し
  • developing a strategic research agenda (SRA) and road map for low dose risk research in Europe;
  • 欧州における低線量リスク研究に関して「戦略的研究計画(SRA)とロードマップを策定し、
  • specifying the essential elements of and next steps to establish a sustainable operational framework for low dose risk research in Europe.
  • 欧州における低線量リスク研究に関する持続可能な運営枠組みにとって必須な要素を特定し、そのような枠組みを構築するための次のステップを特定しています。

According to the HLEG report, the more important issues are:
HLEG報告書によると、重要性が高い課題とは次の通りです。

  • The shape of dose-response for cancer;
  • がんに関する線量応答関係
  • Tissue sensitivities for cancer induction;
  • 発がん誘導の組織感受性
  • Individual variability in cancer risk;
  • 発がんリスクの個人差
  • The effects of radiation quality (type);
  • 放射線の性質(種類)の効果
  • Risks from internal radiation exposure;
  • 内部被ばくによるリスク
  • Risks of, and dose response relationships for, non-cancer diseases;
  • 非がん疾患のリスクとそれに関する線量反応関係
  • Hereditary effects.
  • 遺伝的影響(継世代的影響)

The scientific and administrative challenges in implementing such a research program are to
そのような研究計画の実施に伴う科学的・行政的課題とは次の通りです。

  • Enhance multi-disciplinarity;
  • 学際研究を推進する
  • Include societal aspects in the scope.
  • 計画の射程に社会的側面を含める
  • Develop a holistic research strategy;
  • 総合的な研究戦略を立てる
  • Secure sustainable funding.
  • 持続可能な研究資金を確保する

Major EU research programs (MELODI, DoReMi, OPERRA, CONCERT) have been established to implement the ideas developed by HLEG; they provide good opportunities to integrate the available resources for research in Europe within a strategic and sustainable effort. The existing programs address a variety of scientific questions relevant to medical radiation protection, emergency preparedness and response, and radioecology.
主要な欧州の研究計画(MELODI, DoReMi, OPERRA, CONCERT)は、HLEGによって育まれた構想を実施するために構築されました。これらの計画は、戦略的かつ持続可能な努力の範囲で欧州における研究のために利用可能な資源を統合する良い機会をもたらしています。これら既存の計画は、医療放射線防護、緊急事態への備えと対応、そして放射線生態学に関する様々な科学的な課題に取り組んでいます。

The Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative MELODI is a European Platform dedicated to low dose radiation risk research. MELODI was founded in 2010 as a registered association with 15 members (2014: 30 members).
「学際的欧州低線量イニシアチブ(MELODI)は、低線量放射線リスク研究に特化した欧州の研究プラットフォームです。MELODIは2010年に15の機関(2014年には30機関)により構成される登録協会として設立されました。

The purpose of MELODI is to:
MELODIの目的は次の通りです。

  • Propose research and training (R&T) priorities for Europe in its field of competence;
  • 各専門分野における研究・訓練に関して欧州にとっての重点項目を提案すること
  • Contribute to the EUROPE 2020 Strategy of the European Commission;
  • 欧州委員会のEUROPE 2020に貢献すること
  • Seek the views of stakeholders on the priorities for research, keep them informed on progress made;
  • 研究の重点項目に関するステークホルダーの見解を求め、進捗状況を常に彼らに知らせること
  • Contribute to the dissemination of knowledge.
  • 知識の拡散に貢献すること

Key features of the MELODI working concepts are the
MELODIにおける作業コンセプトの主な特徴は以下の通りです。

  • Shared understanding of the overall goals and of the key questions to be addressed by research activities;
  • 全体の目標と研究活動によって取り組まれるべき主な課題の理解の共有
  • Agreement on a long-term strategic research agenda and on a road map for the implementation of the research agenda;
  • 長期的な戦略的研究計画とその実施のためのロードマップに関する合意
  • Identification of key fields of expertise (biology, biophysics, dosimetry, modelling, epidemiology), as well as of research infrastructures (research facilities, cohorts, etc.) needed for the implementation of the programs.
  • 計画の実施に必要な主要な専門領域(生物学、生物物理学、ドシメトリー(線量測定)、モデル、疫学)と研究インフラ(研究施設、コホートなど)の特定

By integrating education and training activities the programs contribute towards sustainability in the field of low dose risk research.
これらのプログラムは、教育と訓練活動を統合することにより、低線量リスク研究領域における持続可能性に貢献しています。

One of the key objectives of MELODI is the development of a strategic research agenda (MELODI SRA)and a wide cooperation for its implementation. The MELODI SRA frames the research strategy with three key research questions:
MELODIの主な目的の一つは、戦略的研究計画(MELODI SRA)の構築とその実施に向けた幅広い協力です。MELODI SRAは以下の三つの主要な研究課題に沿ってその研究戦略を構想しています。

  • Dose/dose rate dependence of cancer risk?
  • がんのリスクは線量・線量率に依存するか
  • Threshold exposures for protection from health risks other than cancer?
  • がん以外の健康リスクからの防護に関して被ばくの閾値はあるか
  • Reliable methods for identifying individual radiation sensitivity, and addressing related ethical issues?
  • 放射線感受性の個体差を特定し、関連する倫理的問題に取り組むための有効な方法はあるか

The research approaches recommended to answer the questions are
これらの課題を解明するために推奨されている研究アプローチは以下の通りです。

  • Radiobiology research to improve understanding of mechanisms contributing to radiation risk;
  • 放射線生物学研究により放射線リスクに貢献するメカニズムの理解を改善すること
  • Epidemiology Research to integrate biological indicators into radiation risk evaluation;
  • 疫学研究により、生物的指標を放射線リスク評価に統合すること
  • Radiation protection research to better understand the specifics of internal or inhomogeneous exposures, and of different radiation qualities.
  • 放射線防護研究により、内部もしくは不均一被ばくに関する細目、そして異なる放射線の種類に関する細目をよりよく理解すること

Four European Research Platforms focused on core radiation protection activities are contributing to the work:
このような研究作業に対して、中核的放射線防護活動に焦点を当てた以下の四つの欧州研究プラットフォームが貢献しています。

  • Low dose effects and risks: MELODI;
  • 低線量効果とリスクに関してはMELODI
  • Radioecology: ALLIANCE;
  • 放射線生態学に関してはALLIANCE
  • Nuclear emergency preparedness: NERIS;
  • 核エネルギーに関連する緊急事態への備えに関してはNERIS
  • Dosimetry: EURADOS.
  • ドシメトリー(線量測定)に関してはEURADOS

Addition consultations with networks focussing on radiation protection in medicine are underway with the aim of integrating the existing and future research activities in this important field in the planning and implementation process.
医療における放射線防護に焦点を当てたネットワークとのさらなる協議が現在進行中で、それは計画そして実施過程においてこの重要な分野における現在と将来の研究活動の統合を目的としています。

To achieve consensus on priorities within a strategic research agenda is a complex undertaking, which requires among other things the sharing of available expertise and resources at all levels, openness, transparency and trust between the partners as well as the integration of a broad spectrum of research organizations and programs.
戦略的研究計画内での重点項目についてコンセンサスを得ることは複雑な課題であり、そのためには、あらゆるレベルにおける利用可能な専門知識や資源の共有、公開、透明性、パートナー間の信頼、そして幅広い研究組織やプログラムの統合といった多くのことが必要です。

Four out of 15 highest ranked synergetic research priorities from the European Research Platforms SRA identified in 2014 are:
欧州研究プラットフォームSRAにおいて15の最重点統合的研究課題の内、2014年に特定された四つは以下の通りです。

  • Biological indicators of radiation exposure, effects, health risks and disease susceptibility to inform emergency management and epidemiological studies;
  • 緊急事態のマネジメントや疫学調査に資するような放射線被ばく、効果、健康リスク、そして疾病へのかかりやすさに関する生物的指標
  • Development of monitoring strategies, processes and tools;
  • モニタリングの戦略、プロセス、そしてツールの開発
  • Spatial and temporal environmental modelling and human dose assessment after a nuclear accident;
  • 核事故後における時間的・空間的環境モデリングと人体線量評価
  • Development of health surveillance procedures.
  • 健康の監視に関する手続きの制定

Projects within these priority areas will be subject to funding by the EURATOM research program.
これらの重点領域に該当するプロジェクトは、EURATOM(欧州原子力共同体)研究計画による研究資金を得られます。

The purpose of the DoReMi Network of excellence (funding period: 2010 to 2015, 32 partner (2013)) is to promote the sustainable integration of low dose risk research in Europe in order to aid the effective resolution of the key policy questions identified by the High Level Expert Group (HLEG). It provides an operational tool for the development of the MELODI platform (Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Risk Re-search Initiative - www.melodi-online.eu). The Joint Programme of Activities (JPA) include three main activities:
「学際的統合に向けた低線量研究(Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration: DoReMi)ネットワーク(2013年時点で32機関が参加し、2010年から15年を研究資金供与期間とする)は、HLEGによって特定された主な政策課題を効果的に解決することを支援するために欧州で行われている低線量リスク研究の持続可能な統合を促進することをその目的としています。そしてそれは、MELODIプラットフォームの発展のための作業ツールを提供しています。共同活動計画(JPA)は、以下の三つの主な活動を対象としています。

  • Development of a Joint Programme of Research (JPR) on a rolling basis covering the issues outlined above and providing an overview of the needs for research infra-structures of pan-European interest and facilitating multilateral initiatives leading to better use and development of research infrastructures.
  • 上記に示された課題をカバーし、欧州全体の利益となるような研究インフラのニーズの概要を示し、研究インフラのより優れた活用と発展につながるような多角的イニシアチブを促進するようなローリング方式の共同研究計画(JPR)の開発
  • Establishing a Joint Programme of Integration (JPI) to develop a coordinated European roadmap for the long term needs of the key players in Europe.
  • 欧州における主要な機関の長期的なニーズのための欧州全体で調整されたロードマップ開発のための共同統合計画(JPI)の設定
  • Establishing a Joint Programme for the Spreading of Excellence (JPSE), covering knowledge management, training and mobility and its implementation.
  • 科学的知見のマネジメント、訓練、流動性、そしてその実施に関する卓越性の拡散のための共同計画(JPSE)

A substantial proportion of the JPA is dedicated to the Joint Programme of Research. The programme describes a multidisciplinary approach including interfaces with the broader biological toxicological and epidemiological communities.
JPAの主要な部分は、JPRに関するものです。その計画は領域横断型アプローチに沿っており、幅広い生物学、毒性学、そして疫学研究共同体との接点を含みます。

Within the „Open Project for the European Radiation Research Area” OPERRA, the MELODI Association takes the lead in establishing the necessary administrative and legal structures able to manage the long-term European research programmes in radiation protection, also taking advantage of the valuable experience gathered through the DoReMi network of excellence.
「放射線研究領域のための開かれた欧州研究計画(OPERRA)」内では、MELODI境界が放射線防護に関する長期的なヨーロッパ研究計画のマネジメントのために必要とされる行政的・法律的制度を確立し、さらにする上でDoReMiネットワークを通じて得られた貴重な経験を生かす上で指導的な役割を果たしています。

The main objectives of the, OPERRA, are to
OPERRAの主要な目的は以下の通りです。

  • Build up an umbrella coordination structure that has the capacity in a legal and logistical sense to administer future calls for research in radiation protection on behalf of the European Commission as the main funding agency;
  • 主な資金供出組織である欧州委員会のために将来必要とされる放射線防護研究を管理するための法的・ロジスティックス的な能力を有する傘状の調整機構の設立
  • Support the MELODI Association to take the lead to manage the long-term European research programmes together with the support of sister research structures as equal partners (e.g. Alliance, NERIS, EURADOS, EURAMET, EUTERP, etc.).
  • 平等なパートナーである協力研究制度(Alliance, NERIS, EURADOS, EURAMET, EUTERPなど)の支持を得て長期的な欧州研究計画をマネジメントする上で主導的な役割をMELODI協会が果たせるよう支援する

The European Strategy for Radiation Protection Research (European Joint Programme for the Integration of Radiation Protection Research: CONCERT EJP) CONCERT EJP builds on the ideas described above; it has recently been established as an innovative two way street to integration. It defines an umbrella structure for radiation protection research in Europe by including activities for open research calls, integrative activities, joint programming and co-funding actions. CONCERT is open to new national Programme Managers at any time.
「放射線防護研究のための欧州統合計画」(CONCERT EJP)はこれまで述べたような考えに基づくものです。それは、統合に向けた革新的な双方的アプローチとして近年設置されました。それは、開かれた研究計画の募集 、統合的な活動、共同計画や共同出資のための各種活動を含む欧州における放射線防護研究のためのアンブレラ型の制度を構想するものです。CONCERTは、いかなる時でも新たな各国の研究計画マネージャーに対して開かれています。

The EJP consortium is aiming at spreading excellence, multi-disciplinarity, and state of the art knowledge through the application of two approaches:
EJPコンソーシアムは、以下の二つのアプローチの実施を通じ、優れた研究、学際性、そして最先端の知識を広めることを目的としています。

  • Co-operation, competitive open calls processes, communication between the partners as well as
  • パートナー間の協力、競争的公開研究公募、そして意思疎通と
  • Listening to needs, expression of priorities and innovative ideas of society through appropriate mechanisms.
  • 適切なメカニズムを通じて社会におけるニーズや重点項目の意見表明、そして革新的なアイデアに耳を傾けること

The CONCERT funding scheme has a total budget of around 27 M€ over the next 5 years. 70% of the budget is covered by EURATOM, 30% by the EJP Partners; 60% of the total budget for 2016 and 2017 are allocated to two CONCERT open research calls, 30% for CONCERT integrative activities (joint programming, stakeholder engagement, access to research infrastructure, education and training (E&T), etc., and 10% for administration and management.
CONCERTによる研究資金配分制度は、今後五年間累計で総額約2700万ユーロ(2015年5月時点で約37億円)の予算を有し、その70%はEURATOM、30%はEJPパートナー機関が負担します。2016年と17年の総予算額の60%は二つの公開公募されるCONCERT研究計画、30%はCONCERTの統合活動(共同計画、ステークホルダー関与、研究インフラへのアクセス、教育・訓練など)、そして残りの10%はその運営やマネジメントに振り分けられています。

Literature

Concert EJP: www.melodi2014.org/files/presentations/09102014/3_Jung.pdf
DoReMi: www.doremi-noe.net
HLEG report: www.hleg.de
MELODI SRA: www.melodi-online.eu/sra.html
OPERRA: www.melodi-online.eu/doc/DPP_OPERRA.pdf

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